As scheduled yesterday, I start sending this topic early due to volume constraint. 

I split in 4 sections: omega 9 (yesterday), omega 7 (today), omega 6 - 3 to come. 
You will find hereunder the oils high in palmitoleic acid (exerts hormonal activity). 
Have a useful reading! 

As promised, we move today into the omega 6 rich oils before closing our 4S14 series tomorrow with omega 3 rich oils! 
I remind you: mastering all these oils will enable you to provide individual recommendations according fatty acid profiles. 
And optimizing fatty acid profiles lays at the very root of our Functional Medicine paradigm, i.e. restoring bodily functions. 
- intestinal absorption 
- transmembrane communication 
- inflammation or anti-inflammation 
- synaptic transmission 
- mitochondrial ATP production 
- retinal light perception 
- neuronal ion pumps 
- organelles physiology 
- … 
Isn’t all that truly amazing? 
But are you sure you do understand each of these critical physiological processes link with fatty acids?  If not, please ask! 

As promised, here are the omega 3 oils, crucial ones as you know. 

By the way, DHA has been selected for all high precision missions. 
It is due to its 6 double bonds: the most flexible molecule on Earth! 
Isn’t it amazing? 
Have a nice day, 


You probably do not realize (yet) how much fructose is the evil, not the friendly 5-carbon sugar everyone has suggested. 

In excess, this molecule shows so damaging that I cannot accept the recommendation to eat monstrous farmed apples. 
They contain close to 14 grams of fructose opposed to one gram only for wild apples, due to selection of sweet species.
However, I still recommend consuming low-fructose fruit because of immense benefits coming from their phytonutrients. 
I attach a first PowerPoint slideshow (second one will come next Sunday with 4S16) and an article about apple damage. 
I also join our updated FRUCTOSE LIST, and I would like to thank Glen for his excellent initiative in adding “your guide”. 
Enjoy the reading and get ready for more damaging news about fructose on next Sunday! 
Apples and Fructose.pdf


Yes, fructose is the evil.  If you were not convinced last week, you should be today! 
But how is such assertion imaginable given the positive view we have about fruits, especially as the enthusiasm is justified by their immense benefits through phytochemicals? 
Clearly because humans have created these monster fruits full of fructose through selection, if not genetic manipulation - but I’m not knowledged about that; tell me if you are. 
Because we are not supposed to be exposed to large amounts of fructose in the “real” world, we are not protected by receptors sensing an excessive intake, thus stopping us. 
Any other type of nutrients critical for our energy balance correspond to specific receptors that impact our hunger / satiety balance, then protect us against going into overdrive. 
Everyone must have noticed that once we start drinking fruit juice, it shows very difficult to stop.  If thirsty, the whole bottle can disappear.  It would never happen with glucose. 
If you don’t believe me, give it a try!  Perhaps that future humans will be equipped with fructose receptors.  But until then, I request you to educate your patients about this evil

I again attach our FRUCTOSE LIST, which will soon be updated with Linda’s help because she is translating new German data about fructose content for some missing items! 
Have a nice Sunday! 


Are you a “secretor” (80% chances) or unfortunately a “non-secretor” (20% chances)?  And what about all your patients? 
If one presents homozygous variant FUT2 genotype, it leads to incapacity to secrete the enzyme fucosyltransferase-2
Is that a big deal, will you ask?  Yes!  Because the above-mentioned enzyme enables you to bind fucose to the gut lining. 
Fucose is not fructose, but they share the same 5-carbon sugar structure.  Fucose shows essential to protect intestines. 
In short, it attracts beneficial bacteria that literally feed on fucose.  Fucose besides repels large number of gut pathogens. 
It delivers perfect combination to avoid gut inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis.  Non-secretor status means gut havoc! 
I attach 5 articles published in mainstream medical journals, 4 full-text and 1 abstract. All are highlighted for your comfort. 
I stress the importance of article published in 04.2015 that introduces the concept of fucosyllactose, non-secretors Graal! 
I also invite you to study in depth the fifth article that has been published recently, in 11.2017: it delivers a great synthesis.
In the last article, I have highlighted in dark pink paramount conclusions stated by authors regarding precision medicine
They invite us to ”inform and direct an individual’s behavior to minimise infection and disease risk!  So, why not ? 
I wish you an informative reading and an excellent Sunday break, 
2011.05 - H. Secretor Genotype (FUT2 gene) Is Strongly Associated with the Composition of Bifidobacteria in the Human Intestine.pdf
2011.11 - J. FUT2 Nonfunctional Variant - A “Missing Link” Between Genes and Environment in Type 1 Diabetes?.pdf
2015.04 - I. Maternal fucosyltransferase 2 status affects the gut bifidobacterial communities of breastfed infants.pdf
2015.06 - G. Fucosyltransferase 2 - A genetic risk factor for primary sclerosing cholangitis and Crohn's disease--a comprehensive review.pdf
2017.11 - L. Infection's sweet tooth - How glycans mediate infection and disease susceptibility.pdf


What an amazing alkaloid coming from several different plants, as a matter of fact not only belonging to the Berberis genius! 

You all know its powerful antibacterial/antifungal properties that we rely on to help patients suffering from intestinal dysbiosis. 
But there is more, MUCH more: berberine also acts as a powerful insulin sensitizer that fights insulin resistance and diabetes. 
I attach three articles published in the last year.  Evidence is mounting to render this very safe herb a major player in our fight. 
Besides, berberine seems to share multiple properties with drug metformin, and that could include positive effect on longevity. 
I have already started to give two daily capsules of 500 mg, one just before each main meal (from large 180 capsules boxes). 
And I follow that programme myself, by the way… (benefiting from new PURELY YOURS berberine range BBSPY & BBTPY). 
Enjoy the reading as well as your Bank Holiday (for the ones in UK)! 
2017.06 - C. Berberine regulates type 2 diabetes mellitus related with insulin resistance.pdf
2017.09 - A. Metformin and berberine, two versatile drugs in treatment of common metabolic diseases.pdf
2018.01 - B. Effectiveness and safety of bifidobacteria and berberine in people with hyperglycemia - Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.pdf


An easy topic for you today: I remind you about the straightforward way to identify lactose intolerance without classic breath test. 

In fact, despite its fame, breath test does not represent a golden route to identify lactose intolerance, and it’s easy to understand. 
In the first place, “false negatives” (falsely labeling tolerance) may occur when bacterial communities are damaged by antibiotics. 
Also, “false positives” (falsely labeling intolerance) may occur because challenge commonly used in breath tests is exaggerated. 
Indeed, common practice for testing recommends the ingestion of 50 grams of lactose, which is equivalent to 4 to 5 cups of milk. 
I especially recommend reading the first attached duly highlighted full-text  to expand on the topic of false positives or negatives! 
I have besides attached 3 other articles (abstracts only) also supporting the use of LCT gene genotyping to diagnose intolerance. 
I also attach our “LACTOSE LIST”, which you may not know about, despite being easily downloadable from gmouton/funmeddev
In this occasion, I must thank Dr Stavy NIKITOPOULOU who spoke to me in the first place about this genetic test two years ago! 
Have a nice reading, best wishes,
2012.07 - A. Lactose intolerance - Diagnosis, genetic, and clinical factors - FT edited.pdf
2016.02 - B. Lactase persistence versus lactose intolerance - Is there an intermediate phenotype? - abstract edited.pdf
2017.06 - C. Lactose Intolerance (LCT-13910C>T) Genotype Is Associated with Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in Caucasians - abstract edited.pdf
2017.12 - D. Association of lactase 13910 C:T polymorphism with bone mineral density and fracture risk - A meta-analysis - abstract edited.pdf


I have warned my patients for many years: paracetamol (acetaminophen in the US) is a foe, and not a friend. 

I hope that you are aware about its risks for the liver and their amplification in case of absent GST (M1 or T1). 
I attach 3 relevant articles plus my ‘tweet' #28, which has recently been posted on my website about the topic. 

I wish you a nice and easy Pentecost reading! 
2017.12 - A. Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity - Isn’t it time for APAP to go away?.pdf
2018.02 - B. Are some people at increased risk of paracetamol-induced liver injury? A critical review of the literature.pdf
2018.04 - C. King's College Criteria for Acetaminophen Toxicity.pdf


You know how important vitamin B1 (thiamine) shows for metabolism! 
But have you heard about its natural fat-soluble super-active version? 
I mean benfotiamine, which we study today. Don’t spell benfothiamine. 
If you do not know about that, you should urgently uncover my articles. 
And urgently prescribe it, now that it is available at much cheaper cost. 
I attach 4 articles, all in full-text and highlighted to accelerate learning. 
They cover many different ranges of action provided by this super B1
Have a nice reading and enjoy your bank holiday,
2013.12 - A. Double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of benfotiamine for severe alcohol dependence.pdf
2015.09 - B. Benfotiamine upregulates antioxidative system in activated BV-2 microglia cells.pdf
2016.12 - C. Long-Term Cognitive Improvement After Benfotiamine Administration in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease.pdf
2017.10 - D. Advances in the management of diabetic neuropathy.pdf


Lucky you, you get an easy one today, which I still believe is worth because of how important this topic is! 
I hear loads of “fish bashing” nowadays, essentially because of heavy metal poisoning (also PCBs etc…). 
The solution lies in small oily fish that are not predators, eat algae, and have short lifespan: no big issues. 
These are mostly pretty sustainable, harbor limited amounts of ‘poisons’, and they provide gorgeous EPA. 
Let us not make our patients believe that only fish are contaminated on this polluted planet: everything is! 
This being said, I strongly recommend individualizing dietary advice and supplementation according tests. 
Not everyone shows excessive omega 6 fatty acids at the expense of omega 3s: it might be the opposite. 
Insufficient omega 6s, especially gut-lining lubricant GLA and anti-inflammatory DGLA, show detrimental. 
Omega 6s are not ‘bad’ whereas omega 3s are not ‘good’. What matters is balance, as always in biology.
I attach some slides and my brand new OILY FISH LIST! 
Enjoy the reading and… enjoy the sprats or the pilchards. 
Did you know or remember them? 
c9i - OILY FISH.pdf


Cholesterol is not a problem, as we now all know, but the issue comes from oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). 
This parameter can be easily assessed by testing for antibodies against oxidized LDL that provide reliable evaluation. 
Anyhow, the test becomes compulsory for patients who present heterozygous / homozygous variant NQO1 genotype. 
Besides, I recommend assessing Ab to oxidized LDL among all hypercholesterolemic patients, especially if low HDL. 
The following 8 articles (attached) show the interest of such approach, plus they provide means to fight LDL oxidation. 
You will learn that optimisation of vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 should be obtained, plus anthocyanins usefulness. 
I therefore attach our important ANTHOCYANINS LIST, which can also be downloaded by patients from our website. 
Enjoy your Sunday and your reading! 
2001.02 - A. Vitamin E and Atherosclerosis - Beyond Prevention of LDL Oxidation.pdf
2008.07 - B. Oxidation of LDL and its clinical implication.pdf
2008.08 - C. Mulberry anthocyanin extracts inhibit LDL oxidation and macrophage-derived foam cell formation induced by oxidative LDL.pdf
2012.04 - D. Vitamin E ameliorates ox-LDL-induced foam cells formation through modulating the activities of oxidative stress-induced NF-κB pathway.pdf
2013.01 - E. Effects of coenzyme Q(10) on LDL oxidation in vitro.pdf
2017.08 - F. Psoriasis and Cardiovascular Risk - Do Promising New Biomarkers Have Clinical Impact?.pdf
2017.12 - G. Association Between Circulating Oxidized LDL and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease - A Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.pdf
2018.04 - H. Oxidized low density lipoproteins - The bridge between atherosclerosis and autoimmunity. Possible implications in accelerated atherosclerosis and for immune intervention in autoimmune rheumatic disorders.pdf


Today, we embark on a three-Sunday cycle about carotenoids, starting with lycopene (4S24) to follow with astaxanthin (4S25) and beta-cryptoxanthin (4S26) on next weeks. 
I hope that you will agree how much you may have underrated those fat-soluble nutrients heavily researched in recent years.  I am even wondering if you ever test for them? 
Lycopene has especially gained fame regarding prostate cancer prevention, but quite logically it also confers beneficial activities to prevent female counterpart breast cancer. 
Besides, reliable mainstream publications show how lycopene likely helps with male fertility (article A), cognitive impairment (article C), and cardiovascular disease (article E). 
I profit by the occasion to attach the latest version of our LIST CAROTENOIDS that can always be downloaded by our patients directly from my website www.gmouton.com
The list has been expanded. I have started to bolden foods that can contribute more efficiently to replenish corresponding deficiencies.  Of course, supplementation may help. 
I wish you another of those StudiouS SundayS when your body rests (hopefully) but your mind remains active (ideally)! 
2015.03 - A. Lycopene improves the distorted ratio between AA-DHA in the seminal plasma of infertile males and increases the likelihood of successful pregnancy.pdf
2015.12 - B. Natural products for chemoprevention of breast cancer.pdf
2016.08 - C. Protective effect of lycopene on high-fat diet-induced cognitive impairment in rats.pdf
2017.12 - D. Increased dietary and circulating lycopene are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk - A systematic review and meta-analysis.pdf
2018.04 - E. Can lycopene be considered an effective protection against cardiovascular disease?.pdf


Today, I present you the second episode of our triad about carotenoids with their unquestionable champion: astaxanthin

For a long time, astaxanthin has been considered as one of the most powerful antioxidants by quenching singlet oxygen. 
However, that was only the beginning of a saga that you will discover in these four full-text highlighted articles (attached). 
As you can expect from top western movies, astaxanthin shoots in all directions, way beyond improving oxidative stress. 
It improves inflammation, lipid metabolism, and glucose metabolism, which enables astaxanthin to exert cardioprotection. 
Combining antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties, astaxanthin can also prevent neurodegeneration. 
Astaxanthin’s magic does not stop there: you will find out its benefits for exercise metabolism, performance, and recovery. 
The latest review article was published only two months ago.  It uncovers potent antioxidant and anti-wrinkle skin effects! 
So, please don’t ignore this champion antioxidant (anti-everything would be more appropriate) and promote it abundantly. 
I personally prescribe it for patients presenting lack of xanthines in their carotenoid profile.  Don’t forget dietary sources… 
I therefore attach our LIST CAROTENOIDS. I wish you informative reading and relaxing Sunday, first of the new summer. 
2016.01 - A. Potential Anti-Atherosclerotic Properties of Astaxanthin.pdf
2017.02 - B. Neuroprotective mechanisms of astaxanthin - A potential therapeutic role in preserving cognitive function in age and neurodegeneration.pdf
2018.01 - C. Astaxanthin in Exercise Metabolism, Performance and Recovery - A Review.pdf
2018.04 - D. Astaxanthin in Skin Health, Repair, and Disease - A Comprehensive Review.pdf
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